Baseline study

BASELINE STUDY ON BIM METHOD IMPLEMENTATION

IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

 

1. Introduction

This Baseline study was elaborated within the implementation of Czech-UNDP Partnership Project “Support to BIM implementation in Bosnia and Herzegovina” as a starting point for identification of key BIM-related issues to be addressed and steps/measures to be taken to establish the conditions and necessary environment for the progressive implementation of BIM method BiH.

The aim of the Baseline study is to get knowledge of the current status and give more complete picture of BIM method use in BiH, including description of the main possible obstacles for BIM method introduction at national level.

The Baseline study was developed based on contributions processed by BiH expert project team taking into account recommendations provided by Czech experts.

 

2. General information on BIM method

BIM is originally an abbreviation of the English term "Building Information Modelling".

BIM is a process of the project development in the field of construction sector through the development of a virtual three-dimensional information model of the building, with an emphasis on the cooperation of all participants in the process.

BIM is not only a model (a form of database), BIM is a process that uses the BIM model to exchange and share information and also manage it. BIM follows the building from the conceptual design, through all analysis processes to maintenance and management after construction. BIM has become the present and is the only way to keep up with the times, competition and market demands.

However, research done at the level of the construction industry has shown that there are systemic shortcomings related to the level of collaboration during project implementation, followed by insufficient investment in technology, research and development and poor information management. Consequently, construction projects, in which money is invested by the public and private sector, are realized with higher financial risks, and most often due to changes in the projected solutions, deadlines are exceeded and more funds are spent than planned. In addition, construction sector has been identified as one of the least digitized areas of the economy, which is also considered the main cause of stagnant labour productivity employed in this industry.

Globally, BIM is considered a modern approach to the design, construction and maintenance of buildings, and can be defined as a set of interconnected conventions, processes and technologies that generate a methodology for managing the design of the building, but also accompanying project data in digital format throughout the life cycle of buildings.

The European Union has recognized the potential of BIM to foster innovation and digitalisation in the construction industry, so the EU Public Procurement Directive (2014/24 / EU) states that, for contracted public works, including design, Member States may require the use of specific electronic tools like those for BIM. At the same time, the EU "Industrial Agenda" predicts that BIM technology and the changes it introduces will most likely have the greatest impact not only on the construction sector but also on engineering within it.

 

3. Main advantages of using BIM method

BIM enables a significant increase in productivity, more precise and detailed analysis of the project, quality collaboration, quick changes, early detection of problems and a number of other benefits that ensure a quick return on investment.

The transition to BIM is associated with a change in current processes, notably through the communication, transmitting and sharing of data. The second area of change is the introduction of new technologies, which enable BIM models to be created, utilized and to effectively promote change in communication and processes across the life cycle of a building. The third important area is BIM’s contribution to sustainable construction and total building quality.

In the process of BIM implementation it is expected that the aforementioned changes in the work process, which implies continuous cooperation of all participants in the design and construction process on the 3D model with an alphanumeric information connected to the elements in the model, will enable savings due to minor errors on construction sites, collision avoidance, documentation that allows easier monitoring all changes in the design process, easier financial analysis related to the construction process, simplification of the permitting process and better monitoring of the life of the building and investment in its maintenance, as well as investment in public projects monitored through BIM and greater market competitiveness.

Bosnia and Herzegovina would obtain by implementation of BIM method, which is the standard in a large number of countries, competitive position comparable with countries where it is legislatively regulated. Particular examples include the Great Britain, where from 1. 4. 2016 for all public investments the application of the so-called BIM Level 2 modes[1] of operation become mandatory. This program has enabled the British economy to save significant amount of money dedicated to fund such investments and positioned the UK in one of the leading positions in the global construction market.

The similar principle is also introduced by other European Union countries with the obligation to implement by the end of 2020. At the global level, Singapore, South Korea, as well as the Scandinavian countries are leading in the implementation of BIM; in Sweden and Norway, BIM technology has been used for years by public institutions for the implementation of projects through the Public Procurement system.

 

4. Description of the state of play in BIM method use and implementation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

a)    General

The governing structures of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) are divided at state and entity levels, BiH has three Presidents and Council of ministries on state level such as: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Security, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Finance and Treasury, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, Ministry of Communications and transport, Ministry of Human Rights and Refugees and Ministry of Civil Affairs. All other ministries are on a level of entities: Federation BiH and Republika Srpska. Where Federation BiH is consisted of 10 Cantons (regions with its own governance) so FBiH have its Federal Government and Council of ministries and Cantons as well. Also Republic of Srpska has Council of ministries as well. For instance in total there are 12 Ministries of Spatial planning in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

There are no “Chambers of engineers and architects” on a state or entity levels established yet.

Licensed engineers and companies are obligated by law in Republika Srpska and in only two cantons in Federation BiH: Una - Sana Canton and Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Gorazde. 

In the building investment process there are many stakeholders that are, for various reasons, interested in introducing BIM framework such as the following:

-             public authorities (ministries, institutes, municipalities),

-             private sector (design and construction companies),

-             NGO sector ("BIM alliance" and other professional associations).

Stakeholders focusing on implementation BIM method in Bosnia and Herzegovina and on promotion of its benefits include public and private schools and universities.

In BiH, apart from individual research and absorption of knowledge between individuals or companies, there was no structured and organized conduct of any dialogue on BIM method until mid-2016, when the initiative of several mostly design construction companies managed to form a "BIM Alliance" to start with dissemination of information and transfer of knowledge to other entities involved in the construction sector - organizing seminars and conferences, as well as examples of good practice in the form of presenting projects of individual companies, initiating basic trainings for the use of certain software packages in the domain of BIM as well as dialogue with educational institutions in BiH and establishing international and regional contacts with similar associations were activities in the period until 2020.

At present, BIM in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not recognized in laws and bylaws (although, as a potential candidate for the EU, the state is obliged to transpose EU Directives into its laws and bylaws) and no inter-ministerial discussion on this issue have been initiated so far. The public procurement procedure in construction allows for tenders in where the decisive criterion is "the lowest price with a technically satisfactory offer" to use BIM, e.g. plotted CAD drawing are still required as main design outputs. Project implementation is characterized by a lack of information management, collaboration and coordination between the contracting authority (especially when it comes to the public sector) and designers (in the design phase) or contractors (in the construction phase), causing different types of errors.

There were only few public procurements with its request of some sort of BIM implementation came out by the investor (owner) not from the Agency for Public Procurement but they accepted to be mentioned in the call for proposal, such was for example the largest infrastructure project in BiH - the Highway in Corridor Vc or public procurement for the administrative building of Sarajevo Airport, as well as the extension of the MUP facility in the Sarajevo Canton.

There is no monitoring, i.e. it is questionable in what way the contracting authority (investor) if it does not have its adequately trained infrastructure can control the submitted project documentation and affect its quality, i.e. to require contractors to use what was obtained during construction. However, it is currently unknown to what extent the patterns expressed through the use of the „BIM Execution Plan“ have been adopted in the design process of the mentioned projects.

Finally, it should be also noted, that the introduction of BIM technology implies a quality internet connection for possible fast data exchange among the participants in the project, which is often not at a sufficient level in BiH at the moment and changes in IT support are expected.

b)    Standardization

Since 2016 the gradual adoption of ISO and EN standards for BIM can be seen in BiH. The Institute for Standardization of BiH monitor through the work of the Technical Committee BAS / TC 21 standardization works in European and international standardization committees (CEN TC 442 and ISO/TC59/SC13) and has taken over or is preparing to take over European and international BIM standards by the endorsement method and translation method, as follows:

 

 

Reference designation of European/International standard

Reference designation of BAS standard

Title

1

EN 17412-1:2020

nsBAS EN 17412-1:2021*

Building Information Modelling - Level of Information Need - Part 1: Concepts and principles

2

EN ISO 12006-2:2015

nsBAS EN ISO 12006-2:2021*

Building construction - Organization of information about construction works - Part 2: Framework for classification

3

EN ISO 12006-3:2016

nsBAS EN ISO 12006-3:2021*

Building construction - Organization of information about construction works - Part 3: Framework for object-oriented information

4

EN ISO 16739:2020

nsBAS EN ISO 16739:2021*

Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) for data sharing in the construction and facility management industries - Part 1: Data schema

5

EN ISO 16757-1:2019

nsBAS EN ISO 16757-1:2021*

Data structures for electronic product catalogues for building services - Part 1: Concepts, architecture and model

 

EN ISO 16757-2:2019

nsBAS EN ISO 16757-2:2021*

Data structures for electronic product catalogues for building services - Part 2: Geometry

6

EN ISO 19650-1:2018

nsBAS EN ISO 19650-1:2021*

Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) - Information management using building information modelling - Part 1: Concepts and principles

7

EN ISO 19650-2:2018

nsBAS EN ISO 19650-2:2021*

Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) - Information management using building information modelling - Part 2: Delivery phase of the assets

8

EN ISO 19650-3:2020

nsBAS EN ISO 19650-3:2021*

Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) - Information management using building information modelling - Part 3: Operational phase of the assets

9

EN ISO 19650-5:2020

nsBAS EN ISO 19650-5:2021*

Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) - Information management using building information modelling - Part 5: Security-minded approach to information management

10

EN ISO 29481-1:2017

BAS EN ISO 29481-1:2019

Building information models - Information delivery manual - Part 1: Methodology and format

11

EN ISO 29481-2:2016

BAS EN ISO 29481-2:2019

Building information models - Information delivery manual - Part 2: Interaction framework

12

ISO 16354:2013

nsBAS ISO 16354:2021*

Guidelines for knowledge libraries and object libraries

13

ISO/TS 12911:2012

BAS ISO/TS 12911:2013

Framework for building information modelling (BIM) guidance

* To be published on 2021-12-31.

 

However, the application of these standards also requires the elaboration of examples of use, i.e. to create examples of their application in contemporary practice, guidelines, etc. and data structures, format and content of the data required etc. also need to be addressed.

At European level preparation of guides or guidelines for use and implementation of BIM standards are only starting. Currently are under preparation guides to EN ISO 29481-1 and EN ISO 29481- 2 and in early June 2020 was issued Guidance on how to implement ENI ISO 19650-1 and EN 19650-2 in Europe (CEN/TR 17439:2020) which can be used to provide the best response to information management in each project. This guide has not yet published in BiH and there are no other guides and guidelines regarding the application of BIM standards and so far no initiatives to develop such guides or commented wording of BIM standards at national level have been taken.

b)    Education

Educational institutions in BiH started to respond to the emerging trend of BIM. Some high schools and universities are trying to introduce BIM into their curricula, but they have to face a number of problems such as complexity of educational institutions, competencies, staffing etc.

The research shows that in higher education in BiH there is a higher level of information about BIM, compared to secondary education institutions in BiH. There are individual examples of cooperation of higher education institutions with companies engaged in the development of software related to BIM technology. Also, some BIM software is in use through the preparation of studies, final papers or master theses on professional subjects of construction and architectural orientation of the construction professions and teaching staff and students, primarily master's students, are more or less familiar with certain BIM software. It can be noticed that the knowledge about BIM is mainly related to the "Building Information Model".

The analysis of the program of professional subjects at the faculties that educate the staff of engineers of architecture, civil engineering and geodesy showed that students within pre-examination and examination obligations mostly do tasks related to a specific area, i.e. to one specific subject. There are individual examples of harmonization of technical solutions from different areas of construction, or different subjects, which are related to one project. However, even such positive examples reach only within one direction (e.g. linking annual tasks from different areas of construction, which are in the real construction sector, different phases in the construction project).

At the same time, the research shows that there is no systemic solution in the curricula, which would educate students in the period of schooling at the faculty about linking different phases of construction projects. Also, there is a mismatch between the curriculum of computer science subjects and the needs related to the knowledge of BIM software, as a tool for application in project tasks of professional subjects at faculties.

The organization of subject of life- long courses faces a number of obstacles that are absent or are significantly less represented in secondary, higher vocational or academic education. Namely, it is a common opinion that upon completion of the formal education of individuals, education ends. This is supported by the fact that obtaining, renewing and/or maintaining licenses in BiH does not require evidence of attending additional types of education, training, attending seminars, etc., as is the case in the countries of the region or many developed countries.

There is no legal framework by which the competencies acquired by successfully completing the lifelong learning course could be formalized in terms of an appropriate number of ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) or appropriate points comparable to the same in the formal education system. Therefore, for an individual from practice (engineer or technician) in BiH, there is no mandatory motive for attending a lifelong learning course.

BIM is also reflected by lifelong learning providers and the growing expertise of consulting and designed companies that help implement BIM. The imperative for BiH companies is education and adoption of new business models adapted to digital architecture and construction (above all, changes in technology and processes are important). In this regard, it is noted that the research of the professional public in BiH found that BIM users are mostly construction bureaus and individual engineers working on projects for foreign markets and/or foreign investors in BiH which started working within BIM collaborations and offered "learning by doing" trainings for their employees in internally organized training processes. The use of CAD software is common in domestic engineering practice. A step forward was made by the company that formed the "Walter BIM Academy", which could be accessed by students who were not employees at the time and offered training in Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Mostar.

With the partial application of BIM tools, initially mainly by architectural offices, and later with the involvement of designers in the field of construction and installations in construction, it was possible to form a very complex team that would work on the BIM principle. These experiences and knowledge have been implemented in private investments in the form of shopping centres and facilities for collective housing, while in civil engineering, i.e. projects in the field of infrastructure are visible interests in the application of BIM, and the precedent is set by the first tenders FBiH Motorways "which at that moment became a pioneering move in practice in the countries of the former Yugoslavia, even before Slovenia and Croatia, which are members of the EU.

c)    Connection to geographic information and cadastre

The European integration processes are ahead of Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of its obligations will for sure be harmonization of local legislation with INSPIRE directive (Directive 2007/2/EC establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community – INSPIRE) . The time has therefore come to start thinking, creating and regulating through legislation the necessary environment, in accordance with positive experiences, i.e., best practice, from European countries and countries of the region."

Administration for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FGA) has started with the activities in the field of spatial data infrastructure (SDI) that are within its competence. Having regard to all complexities of the way in which the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is organized, the need for coordination with other institutions of authorities is pronounced, particularly with the institutions that are in charge of land administration (Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Physical Planning and Ministry of Environment).

As part of the Land Registration Project funded by the World Bank loan, active cooperation and coordination between FGA and Ministry of Justice of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have played an enormous role in quality completion of the Project. One of important results of the Project is development of IT/IM Strategy for Land Administration of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is one of the documents underlying SDI of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Active cooperation among the competent institutions needs to be continued for the sake of creation of SDI strategy and implementation of the establishment of SDI in itself, particularly when drafting of the legislation begins. A good example for us are European and regional experiences, which have already partially materialized through the organization of the roundtable discussion entitled "Spatial Data Infrastructure in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina", where SDI was recognized as necessary in development of an integrated spatial data system and as a foundation for overall economic and social development of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

According to research done by Elma Kurt on behalf of Municipality Ilidza, Canton Sarajevo:
"As the EU wants to achieve easy availability of spatial data, the European statistical organization EUROSTAT proposes the introduction of GIS technology. With the advent of GIS, the possibility of spatial data management improves, and base on faster and easier obtaining of information, and it is possible to work on improving the economic and social development of all EU members, as well as countries in the accession process. What is currently a problem is that a large number of geodetic and other graphic bases (with statistical division) that can be used are in analog or raster non-georeferenced form. In order for them to be suitable for efficient use in GIS, they must go through a vectorization process. Thus, geodetic bases (cadastral plans, orthophotos and others) with a networked statistical division essentially represent a graphic database of spatial data of official records and registers. The introduction of GIS, i.e. digital presentations of geospatial data, offers improvements in the organization and management of spatial data, in order to make better decisions, and faster and easier access to information. GIS is an important tool for solving problems that require manipulation and analysis of geographic data, but its success depends primarily on the availability of data, institutional and political support needed for its establishment and the capabilities and experiences of those who use it."

d)    Digital data in the processes

According to the currently valid laws, the issuance of a permit for the construction of facilities requires the submission of appropriate documentation, the main project of the building, which is specified by certain county or federal regulations or regulations of the Republika Srpska. Irrespective of which of the regulations is applied, the main project is required, which is bound, in paper form (2D drafts) and despite minor differences in defining the content of this documentation, these are mostly documents that are not in digital form. Some investors, without a legal obligation, request documentation in digital form, so that a CD or a memory stick with the requested files is submitted with the bound project.

Files showing a graphical representation of the building in these cases are supplied in .pdf (Adobe acrobat) or .dwf (ACAD viewer) format. Open graphic files such as .dwg (ACAD) are also available on special request. This assumes that the designs were made in a CAD environment.

Other, text files that contain general information about the project and the designer are usually provided in .pdf or .jpg (any digital photo reader) format.

Text files containing the technical description, bill of quantities and cost list can also be provided in .pdf (Adobe acrobat) format or if submitted as open files are usually in .docx (MS Word) or .dxfx (MS Excel) format.

Overview of current situation on the field of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector in BiH only shows that there are spread and common use of software's such as GIS, AutoCAD and CutCad and similar, as well in a very few cases presence of  use of BIM supported softwares Revit (predominantly), Allplan and Archicad.

The current state of documentation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is at that level. Roughly, stakeholders in the process of building at the level of IT education have mastered this process. It includes knowledge of ACAD tools, MS office, Adobe acrobat, digital photo viewing tools...

Recently, there are requests from the Investor, in the public procurement procedure, for the application of BIM technology, which means the development of a BIM model based on the Main Project prepared in 2D form.

For placement of products on foreign markets and for their competitiveness, the need to supplement the available catalogues and "libraries" available on the website with BIM models has been recognized. Building material manufacturers in BiH are spontaneously creating individual libraries of elements. Some manufacturers already have such libraries and catalogues on their websites, but mostly they only create partial data, often intended only for selected SW tools.

Software solutions for the presentation of, for example, piece furniture in a way that uses "Augmented Reality" are also being developed.

IT education regarding the application of BIM technology is in the development process. As the requirements of the tender documentation in the public procurement process were to hire a BIM consultant with certain qualifications, it was necessary for this purpose to hire a company that is not from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The initiative through the "Foreign Trade Chamber of BiH", which in 2019 launched an ambitious project on digitalization of BiH society in one of its segments, also dealt with the construction sector and should check which results or guidelines have been adopted so far and in what way such or other initiatives without clear legal regulations, impose investments in equipment, knowledge and skills that are necessary for the prepared project documentation to really be applied in the best way in the process of building facilities.

Initiatives such as "Smart City" funded by UNDP and supported by City Council realized in Sarajevo 2019/20 years, which are now being extended to other cities in BiH, will be an opportunity to financially support initiatives on the application of some of the BIM technologies on specific projects.

 

5. Identification of the main unresolved issues and possible obstacles

Based on the above the following main issues were identified as affected the implementation of BIM method in BiH.

-     fragmented system of the state administration in BiH which prevents to setting a common rules and adopting the BIM method horizontally at all state and entity levels,

-     non-existence of legal framework for BIM method implementation,

-     lack of information management, collaboration and coordination between public clients,

-     lack of awareness and information on what outcomes and benefits using of BIM method brings,

-     lack of comprehensive information on the state of play in the area of digitalization of data needed for implementation of BIM method,

-     missing necessary standardization (normative issues),

-     necessary additional education (educational issues),

-     insufficient technical knowledge of the BIM method, in particular as regards the use of processes at work, use of data in further processes, the perception of what BIM models are for etc.,

-     ignorance of the advantages of the method,

-     resistance to the introduction of new methods.

The highlighted weaknesses give the indication that it is intensive training and increasing of awareness of BIM and its benefits as the first step to improvement and development in the area of BIM method implementation in BiH. This could be supported by training of public administration which would be than able not only to evaluate project documentation processed with BIM method but could also will require effectively using of BIM method in public procurements and investment contracts. That could lead to an improvement in the overall situation no only as regards documentation and management but also to financial savings.

Approaches to implementation of BIM in European countries vary in accordance to local conditions, however the whole process of BIM implementation at the national level should follow the worldwide best practices. The harmonization of measures of the strategy for removing obstacles to the introduction of BIM with the surrounding countries and the use of their experiences would facilitate and accelerate the introduction of this method in BiH as well.

As BIM method has not been yet recognized in BiH law, there is no coordination and communication between responsible ministries, professional institutions and commercial sector and the procedure for construction industry is still following conventional design-bid-build procedure the competent institutions in BiH have to accelerate the effective introduction of BIM method and come up to the implementation of BIM method in construction sector in responsible and active manner and legislatively support its use. This should be supported by processing of BIM introduction concept that would serve to determine the individual continuous and coherent steps and would allow the use of BIM methods as soon as possible, even though only in selected areas. The concept would enable to relevant stakeholders (designers, investors, construction companies, engineers etc.) to follow the process and to be prepared for further steps.

 

6. Main areas of interest to implement BIM method

Taking into account the fragmentation of state administration in BiH and impossibility of reaching clear and uniform conclusion, it seems to be realistic to support the following:

-     education, i.e. inclusion of BIM in academic education syllabi enabling students to get familiar with BIM concept and to acquire some basic skills, which is of utmost importance for implementation of BIM at the national level, and long-life education of engineers and technicians,

-     digitalization of data,

-     adoption of an adequate strategy to introduce and formulate appropriate norms, rules and regulations governing the introduction of BIM, adopt and implement European and international standards and specifications due to wider acceptance of the same methodology , the possibility of drafting contracts with the same terminology and to work in digitalized environment,

-     increasing of level of awareness of business entities in the first phase in order to increase the level of information, trust in the new method, demonstrate BIM method advantages and motivate the whole AEC sector in BiH to implement BIM.

a)    Education

The application of the BIM methodology in construction practice, both in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in general, is, among other things, conditioned by the level of education of potential users.

Socio-economic situation, mentality, legal non-conditionality for additional education, in order to obtain or renew professional licenses, the fact that Bosnia and Herzegovina is not a member of the EU, as well as other factors, result in the majority of persons employed in the BiH construction sector education, which was acquired through previous formal education. At the same time, organizational and technological progress is taking place in construction on a global level, to which, among other things, the standards and EU Directives related to the application of the BIM approach in construction projects contribute. One of the significant consequences of the above is that for strategic infrastructure construction projects in BiH, domestic construction companies are not competitive in relation to foreign ones, which are able to implement projects with the BIM approach. Therefore, it is extremely important for the change of the design system in the construction industry of Bosnia and Herzegovina to start educational institutions at all levels.

Therefore, for the successful implementation of the BIM methodology in practice it is necessary to include:

·     secondary education system,

·     higher education,

·     engineers from practice and public administration

In addition to the above conventional ways of education, organized by relevant educational institutions, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that in modern society, especially the younger population is affected by information, but also the acceptance of new knowledge through social networks. In that sense, it is desirable to follow the trend by promoting the advantages of applying the BIM methodology with short presentations, tutorials, which would be present on social networks, YouTube, etc.

           i)        Education - high school

The activity of introducing BIM methodologies at the level of secondary education should be realized systematically, starting with cooperation with the competent federal and republic ministries of education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, relevant cantonal ministries and coordination with the agencies responsible for secondary education, as well as the ministries responsible for the field of construction.

Due to the complexity of arranging institutions that have competencies in various domains for the secondary education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the lack of a public database on the coordinated activities of these, it is necessary to implement a more detailed methodology of access to these competent institutions, organizing their information on the importance of secondary education, analysing  the relevant curricula of construction and other technical schools (with a note on the lack of a unified curriculum of the profiles of Construction, Architectural and Geodetic technicians and technicians participating in the construction sector at the level of BiH), focusing on coordinated work and mutual cooperation in subjects dealing with soil mechanics, building materials, structural design, organization and construction technology, computer applications, etc.

Special emphasis should be given to IT subjects in order for the output competencies of technicians to enable them the ability to model the appropriate technical and functional assemblies in BIM software.

In this context, appropriate solutions could include a pilot project with a consortium of a team of teachers of secondary construction schools from the Czech Republic, two teams of teachers of construction schools in BiH (which would include teachers from one construction school in each entity), representatives of ministries responsible for education in the entities, businesses with experience in BIM implementation. The aim of the pilot project would be: - raising the competencies of teaching staff (engaged in professional subjects) from two Construction Schools, - transfer of experiences of EU teachers on the implementation of BIM in the teaching process, - establishing a model that would indicate to the ministries responsible for education the importance of introducing the BIM system, as a model according to which the output profiles of the secondary construction sector are educated, the existing barriers, as well as ways to eliminate them, transferring the experience of teams of teachers from construction schools in BiH, directly involved in the implementation of the pilot project, to teachers of other construction schools in BiH.

          ii)       Education – universities

The activity of introducing BIM methodologies at the level of higher professional and academic education should be realized systematically, starting with the cooperation with the competent ministries for higher education in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

As one of the starting points for the implementation of BIM in Bosnia and Herzegovina, through the activities of higher education institutions, a comprehensive implementation of the survey on knowledge of BIM as a system is proposed.

Therefore, the appropriate way forward could be to develop a pilot project methodology for performing a studio project, which would overlap the activities of students of architecture, civil engineering, geodesy, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and economics on the same construction project. This system of work, in the briefly described pilot project, would be a good basis for the acceptance of BIM in the academic community, as a system in which both technologically and methodologically approached the implementation of construction projects.

        iii)       Education – long life education – engineers, technicians

It is extremely important to promote the concept of learning throughout the working life of an individual, encourage motivation to acquire and improve competencies that will facilitate and accelerate work, raise the level of quality, open the possibility of working on projects outside BiH, etc.

The organization of lifelong learning courses for engineers and technicians from practice should be organized using the experiences of successful organizations of lifelong learning courses in BiH and other topics in the field of construction, but also from the experiences of regions and EU countries that organized the same and/or similar activities. Accordingly, it is recommended that the bearers of the organization of lifelong learning courses be universities, which in accordance with the specifics of each individual course will be supported by ministries responsible for education, ministries responsible for science, ministries responsible for construction, institutes,
adult education institutions, workers' universities with adult retraining programs, software companies, chambers of commerce, Chamber of Engineers, associations of engineers, relevant construction economic entities, etc.¨

Particular attention should be paid to equipping and training public administration employees from line ministries and entity, cantonal and municipal authorities, because they as direct participants in the process of issuing and verifying the credibility of built projects should master the basic postulates and skills of using software that are part of BIM processes. Interdisciplinarity in the execution of processes of individual ministries that indirectly or directly concern construction in the most global sense, such as transport, communications, waste management, water resources management, etc. could certainly be improved by applying BIM technologies and data that project documentation can contain.

b)    Digitalization of data - structure and content of the models, possibilities of using data

The technical heart of the BIM method is the Common Data Environment (CDE), which includes all the information. That is, not only the 3D model and its non-geometric data, but also all other documents, communication between the project participants and their processes in the various phases of the building’s life cycle .Submitting project files in digital form has great advantages over submitting in 2D printed form only. In addition to physical delivery, it is possible to send documentation by e-mail or physically on a smaller medium than in the paper version. Information stored in the BIM model can be divided into two groups by its purpose - geometric data (visual appearance of an element) and - non-geometric data (properties and parameters of the individual elements of a model, or management and supporting documents of a structure).

However, there are no standardized data format for public procurements tenders, electronic processed for the siting and permitting of buildings in BiH. There are only fragmented records of state property administration etc. Therefore, possible agreements on the structure and content of the model will require longer discussions with the relevant stakeholders and state administration. It would require to monitor a number of projects and select best practices which could be made according evaluation of pilot projects.

c)    Possibility and demands for guidance or standards to be developed

           i)        Technical standard use in real processes (EN ISO 19650 series)

Currently, there are used in particular the following reference documents (standards, norms, guidelines) in BiH:

·     BIM Specifications (EIR)

·     Level of Development specification (Part I & II, BIMForum)

·     PAS 1192-2:2013: Specification for information management for the capital/delivery phase of construction projects using building information modelling; BSI.

In order to adapt to the European Union, it is recommended to follow European standards EN ISO 19650 series and to ensure continuous adoption and translation of all relevant technical standards being processed in this area. To use BIM method to its fullest potential, it is necessary to understand each other and correctly understand the requirements, etc. It then becomes necessary to give all interested parties a terminology and to learn to distinguish the relevant terms which are generally defined in the following standards and data standards:

·     EN ISO 19650-1:2018: Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) - Information management using building information modelling - Part 1: Concepts and principles

·     EN ISO 19650-2:2018: Organization and digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information modelling (BIM) -- information management using building information modelling -- part 2: Delivery phase of the assets

·     prEN 17412  Building information modelling — Level of information need— Part1: Concepts and principles

·     Open BIM Collaboration Format (BCF), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) – building SMART data standards

Below is an overview of the basic BIM terms and their definitions:

2D

Two-dimensional representation of an object, typically plans, sections, elevations and details. It can be created from scratch or generated from a 3D model. Main designs used by authorities and contractors are today on this level.

3D Model

3D geometric models derived from engineering design applications, consisting of 3D solid objects and triangulated surfaces. Models may have varying levels of detail and development depending on the project phase.

4D

The intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD/BIM components or assemblies with time- or schedule-related information. 4D is 3D plus schedule/time.

5D

The intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD/BIM components or assemblies with quantities- or cost-related information. 5D is 3D plus quantities/cost.

Attribute

Data field populated with pieces of information attached to each BIM object to provide different types of information, like physical/geometrical characteristics, classification codes, locations, relationships, or data related to the BIM use cases. Some Authoring Tools call it “Parameter”.

Authoring Tools

BIM Software developed by different providers that enable the creation and modification of BIM Models.

BCF

Open file format that allows the addition of textual comments, screenshots and more on top of the IFC model layer for better communication between coordinating parties. It separates the communication from the actual model

BIM Execution plan

Document developed by suppliers’ pre-contract to address the Employer's Information Requirements (EIR/TS) - which defines how the information modelling aspects of a project will be carried out. The BEP facilitates the management of delivery of the project. The BEP will be developed in detail over time as more members of the Supply Chain are appointed.

Building Information Modelling

Set of technologies, processes and policies enabling multiple stakeholders to collaboratively design, construct and operate a Facility in virtual space.

BIM Model

3D models containing information and attribute data.

BIM Use

The intended or expected Project Deliverables from generating, collaborating-on and linking Models to external databases. It represents the interactions between a User and a Modelling system to generate Model based Deliverables (e.g. Clash Detection, Cost Estimation)

Classification

Systematic arrangement of headings and sub-headings for aspects of construction work including the nature of assets, construction elements, systems and products

Client

Individual or organization commissioning a built asset

Common Data Environment (CDE)

Single source of information for any given project, used to collect, manage and disseminate all relevant approved project documents for multidisciplinary teams in a managed process

Data Files (data drops)

Extraction of the data information stored in the BIM Models. This data is extracted to spreadsheets or databases.

Data Exchanges

BIM Deliverables (Model files + Data files + Document files)

Employer’s Information Requirements (EIR)

Pre-tender document setting out the information to be delivered, and the standards and processes to be adopted by the supplier as part of the project delivery process

Employer

Individual or organization named in an appointment or building contract as the employer

Federated Model

A BIM Model which links (does not merge) several Mono-Discipline Models together. As opposed to Aggregated Models, Federated Models do not merge the properties of individual models into a single database (or single aggregated model) the concept of “federation” remarks the fact that there is an internal structure (WBS, Work Breakdown Structure) that relates all the organisation models to the same project or organisation. This idea includes not only the naming and codification, but also other subjects like the geo-reference / geo-location and the data management.

IFC

Data model neutral and open specification (e.g. one that is not controlled by a single software vendor or group of vendors) that is used by BIM programs and that contains a model of a building or facility, including spatial elements, materials, shapes and information and attribute data.

Information Exchange

Structured collection of information at one stage of a project in a defined format and fidelity

Data specifications

Collective term used for and including the “Level of Geometric detail” (LoG) and the “Level of Information” (LoI).

Master Information Delivery Plan

Post-Contract award deliverable which includes a plan listing all the information deliverables of a project including models, drawings, specifications, equipment, schedules, data drops and other kind of deliverables such as 4D videos. It identifies when project information is to be prepared, by whom, and defines the Data specifications and the procedures. It is created by collating the TIDPs of all the discipline of a project.

Milestone

Scheduled event marking the due date for accomplishment of a specified task or objective. A milestone may mark the start, an intermediate point or the end of one or more activities.

Parameter

Synonym of “Attribute” used in some Authoring Tools. This document uses the term Attribute.

Task Information Delivery Plan

Post-Contract award deliverable, which includes a plan listing all the information deliverables of a specific discipline of a project including models, drawings, specifications, equipment, schedules, data drops and other kind of deliverables such as 4D videos. It identifies when project information is to be prepared, by whom, and defines the Data specifications and the procedures.

World Coordinate System

Coordinate system whose origin is specified by a user. This system enables multiple projects or models to use a common coordinate system for position designation.

Project Information

Project Information: Client, Beneficiary, Designer, Project title, Project Number, Project location, Subsection, Chainage, Phase, Main Design - Brief project description, Additional project information.

Project phase/milestone

Estimated start date, estimated completion date (BEP, BIM Model Development, Design Inconsistencies Detection and BIM Design Review Report, Quality Clash Checks and report, Establish Clean BIM and BIM Design Review Report, Create the actual Bill of Quantities)

Key Project Contacts

Key Project Contacts for each organization on the project: Client representative, Project Manager, BIM Manager, Lead BIM Coordinator, BIM Coordinator, BIM Author/Modeller.

          ii)       Exchange requirements

An exchange of requirements is defined as set of datasets required to be exchanged to meet a specific requirement during of any stage of the project lifecycle.

Employer’s Information Requirements (EIR) define the information that will be required by the employer from both their own internal team and from suppliers for the development of the project and for the operation of the completed built asset. Relevant extracts from the employer's information requirements are included in procurement documents for the appointment of each supplier appointed directly by the employer, which may include: consultants, contractors and so on. Prospective suppliers respond to the employer's information requirements with a pre-contract BIM execution plan from which their proposed approach, capability and capacity can be evaluated.

Development of the employer's information requirements is likely to be an iterative process and the following tasks are part of coordination process:

•     The use of a common setting of output-data across all disciplines

•     All BIM models have to be georeferenced in internal local coordination system for the design (BIM model).

•     The direct referencing of inter and intra discipline BIM data from other disciplines during the creation of BIM Models to eliminate significant clashes during the BIM modelling

•     The production of design BIM models in native format IFC shared on an agreed regular basis

Format IFC 2x3 has the broadest coverage of support of all published IFC releases. However, now IFC4 is registered with ISO as an official National Standard BAS ISO 16739:2016 in BiH.

It should be useful to pay further attention to discussions on common EIR template but certainly with an emphasis on adaptation for different Projects and Investors.

        iii)       Content and structure of BEP

The response to the EIR is the BIM Execution Plan (BEP). The BEP determines whether the conditions of the EIR are feasible. During the project, it is possible to adjust the BEP as needed.

BEP – BIM Execution Plan is a document describing the basic project parameters, roles, responsibilities of the participants, basic conditions for passing BIM models, the tools used and basic terms.

Process and Modelling Regulations for Building Information Model are related to:

-   BIM Model Development (Main Design)

-   Design Inconsistencies Detection and Review using BIM

-   Clash Detection Analysis

-   Model-based Quantity Take-off (QTO) verification

-   Regular updating and supervises properly updating of the BIM model in accordance with the progress of work

Modelling Regulations for Building Information Model:  3D Model Structure, Model File Naming Convention, Data specifications, Attributes, Modelling guidelines, Geo-location & Coordinates system and Integral federated model and federated discipline models.

It would be useful to consider including the recommended common template in some of the documents that need to be prepared in the BiH market in order to implement BIM technologies, such as the BIM manual or guidelines.

        iv)        Use of CDE

Common Data Environment (CDE) is a single source of information for any given project or asset, used to collect, manage and disseminate all relevant approved project documents and data for multi-disciplinary teams in a managed process. The CDE must provide a secure, collaborative digital environment that all approved parties on a project can access. CDE platform was establish on single platform for each BIM project. All participants of the project are added on CDE with defined user roles and permissions.

In order to develop the deliverables with the level of quality required by client it was necessary to manage the overall cross discipline BIM collaboration process.

Information exchanges is permitted in CDE environment including e-mails and models.

The CDE model has four principal phases: Work in Progress (for unapproved information), Shared (approved information for sharing), Published (information approved by the Employer) and Archived.

For projects processed in BiH, which partly use BIM, communication by e-mail is mostly used - via ftp servers. CDE is rarely used, only in cases where one of the participants already works with it. It is therefore essential that all CDE inputs are clearly defined through a hierarchy of information requirements (when project information is to be prepared, by whom and using what protocols and procedures, incorporating all relevant task information delivery plans).

d)    Law and contract analysis

Most of the current large infrastructure construction contracts in Bosnia and Herzegovina are credited by the World or European banks are based on the Red FIDIC or on the terms of the construction contract for buildings or construction works designed by the client (Building and Engineering works designed by the Employer). Recently, tenders have been launched that provide for the so-called yellow FIDIC, or contracts for the delivery of equipment and construction in which projects are prepared by the contractor (Plant and Design - Build).

So far, there have been few requests to use BIM technology in the design. Recently (from the middle of 2018) in the projects of the Red FIDIC, the contractor is required to form a BIM model of the project according to the Main Project, which has already been developed according to the given BIM specifications. Therefore, the task of the BIM consultant is to make a BIM model according to the already existing technical documentation, taking into account the requirements from the BIM specifications. In this process, the development of a model in accordance with PAS 1192-2: 2013 is required which defines “BIM level 2”.

In the first step, this model is used to detect errors in the project documentation. In the second step, the compliance of individual parts of the project is checked (compliance of the route project with the drainage project, the electrical installation project…). In the third step, the quantities from the cost estimate of the main project are checked with the quantities obtained from the BIM model. In the end, the goal is to submit a model of the completed building that fully corresponds to the situation of the performed works, as a model that will serve the investor in the phase of management and maintenance of the building.

When performing a contract in accordance with the yellow FIDIC, the investor's requirements for the development of the BIM model are extended by the requirement for the development of 4D and 5D construction simulations as well as 4D performance monitoring. In relation to the requirements according to the Red FIDIC, the fact that these requirements have been moved to an earlier stage of the project (because the design is contracted in the same contract), so the BIM model can be used for the purpose of making the main project, execution planning, performance monitoring, and all this before management and maintenance.

As for high-rise buildings or smaller individual buildings, no such requirements have been noticed, although 3D modelling as a way of presenting the appearance of the building to the investor has become the standard.

In BiH are mostly used templates from other countries, mainly from UK. Therefore the development should be to move to the EU documents.

Attached to the text, we submit BIM specifications as defined by Autoceste FBiH as an investor in the largest infrastructure projects.

 

7. Summary

The implementation of BIM method into the construction practice include extensive activities which will overlap into many fields. The above stated general description of how and to what extent the BIM method is used in BiH as well as state of play in areas and issues related to BIM method implementation showed that the current situation of BIM method application in BiH is marked by high level of fragmentation at all corresponding levels and areas.

There is no legal support to implementation of using BIM method, no coordination and communication between responsible ministries, professional institutions and commercial sector, no targeted support in information transfer to professional community, data and documents in digital form are used to a very limited extent as there are no uniform data formats, structure and processes defined. There is absence of uniform concept for BIM use and fragments of modelling according to BIM method can be seen only in some projects realized mainly by foreign investors. But when it comes to project implementation lack of information management, coordination and insufficient knowledges of the related processes between the subjects involved appears. As a result, each of project implementation requires higher costs and more time than it was originally expected.

The both experts teams involved in processing of the Baseline study concluded that due to relatively complex and fragmented system of state administration in BiH it seems to be unrealistic to start with top-down approach to BIM method introduction in BiH. At the current state of play and in order to shift from the fragmentation of the overall process to cooperation the effort should be focused rather on selected areas for which the concept of BIM introduction defining individual steps and measures to be taken should be processed. The more emphasis should be put on increasing the awareness and education of all potential participants of BIM-based projects - public administration, technical public and industry Both AEC industry and public sector should include standard and specifications developed for work in digitized environment and adopt digitalization as one of the main strategic objectives with the support of processed guides, methodological guidelines, defined data format, structure and processes and other supporting documents and materials. Inclusion of BIM especially in academic education syllabi enabling students to get familiar with BIM concept and to acquire some basic skills is an essential prerequisite for progress and successful implementation of BIM method.


[1] Transformation of the construction industry towards a “BIM oriented” environment in UK speeded up in 2010 thanks to the “Digital Built Britain” Programme. This programme was increased further in 2011 with the description of the BIM maturity levels by UK BIM Task Group:
BIM Level 0 = lack of BIM (2D CAD drawings) – no collaboration between different parties about built asset, BIM Level 1 = data has assumed a form of (2D/3D CAD drawings) – still distance to different parties being achieved,
BIM Level 2 = collaboration has been introduced between teams and the process of BIM is being followed. There is still a lack of a single source of data, but crucially any data collected about a built asset is now shared,